Kyprolis ( Carfilzomib ) for Injection, a proteasome inhibitor, is approved for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma who have received at least two prior therapies, including Bortezomib and an immunomodulatory agent, and have demonstrated disease progression on or within 60 days of completion of the last therapy. Approval is based on response rate.
Safety data have been evaluated in 526 patients with relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma who received single-agent Carfilzomib. There were 37 deaths in the phase 2 studies, or 7% of patients. The most common causes of death, other than disease progression, were cardiac ( 5 patients ), end-organ failure ( 4 patients ), and infection ( 4 patients ).
Important warnings and precautions include cardiac arrest, congestive heart failure, myocardial ischemia; pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary complications, infusion reactions, tumor lysis syndrome, thrombocytopenia, hepatic toxicity and embryo-fetal toxicity.
Death due to cardiac arrest has occurred within a day of Kyprolis administration.
Patients with NYHA ( New York Heart Association Class ) III and IV heart failure, myocardial infarction in the preceding 6 months, and conduction abnormalities uncontrolled by medications were not eligible for the clinical trials. These patients may be at greater risk for cardiac complications.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension ( PAH ) was reported in 2% of patients treated with Kyprolis and was grade 3 or greater in less than 1% of patients. Dyspnea was reported in 35% of patients enrolled in clinical trials. Grade 3 dyspnea occurred in 5%; no grade 4 events, and 1 death ( grade 5 ) was reported.
Infusion reactions, characterized by a spectrum of systemic symptoms including fever, chills, arthralgia, myalgia, facial flushing, facial edema, vomiting, weakness, shortness of breath, hypotension, syncope, chest tightness, or angina can occur immediately following or up to 24 hours after administration of Kyprolis.
Administration of Dexamethasone prior to Kyprolis reduces the incidence and severity of reactions.
Tumor lysis syndrome ( TLS ) occurred following Kyprolis administration in less than 1% of patients. Patients with multiple myeloma and a high tumor burden should be considered to be at greater risk for TLS.
Thrombocytopenia following Kyprolis administration resulted in a dose reduction in 1% of patients and discontinuation of treatment with Kyprolis in less than 1% of patients.
Cases of hepatic failure, including fatal cases, have been reported ( less than 1% ). Kyprolis can cause elevations of serum transaminases and bilirubin.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women using Kyprolis. Females of reproductive potential should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant while being treated with Kyprolis.
The most common serious adverse reactions were pneumonia, acute renal failure, pyrexia, and congestive heart failure. The most common adverse reactions ( incidence of 30% or greater ) observed in clinical trials of patients with multiple myeloma were fatigue, anemia, nausea, thrombocytopenia, dyspnea, diarrhea, and pyrexia.
Serious adverse reactions were reported in 45% of patients. ( Xagena )
Source: Onyx, 2014